Men's Artistic Gymnastics
The Men’s Artistic Gymnastics events are:
Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars, Horizontal Bar, and combined exercises (the All-Around), which combines the scores of the other six events [1,2].
This is a gymnastics event in which movements are performed on the Floor in an area 12 metres (40 feet) square, where no other apparatus is used. Men’s routines are 50 to 70 seconds in duration . The Floor routine is composed predominantly of acrobatic elements combined with other gymnastic skills, such as strength and balance parts, elements of flexibility, handstands, and choreographic combinations, all forming a harmonious rhythmic exercise which is performed utilizing the entire floor exercise area (12m x 12m) . The Floor Exercise was introduced as an individual Olympic medal sport for men in 1936 .
The Pommel Horse was developed centuries ago as an artificial horse used by soldiers to practise mounting and dismounting , with the Romans adding this apparatus to the ancient Olympic Games. The basic modern exercises were developed in the early 19th century by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, founder of the German turnverein . A contemporary Pommel Horse exercise is characterized by a variety of support positions on all parts of the horse, permitting different types of circular swings with legs apart and together, single leg swings and/or scissors, and swings through the handstand position with or without turns. All elements must be executed with swing and without the slightest interruption of the exercise. Strength and hold elements are not permitted .
The Rings were invented in the early 19th century by the German Friedrich Jahn, known as the father of gymnastics, and competition on this apparatus requires the greatest strength of any gymnastics event. The Rings have been part of the gymnastics programme in the Olympic Games since its modern revival in 1896 , and gymnasts typically wear ring grips while performing on this apparatus, which consists of two rings that hang freely from a rigid metal frame. Each ring is supported by a strap, which in turn connects to a steel cable that is suspended from the metal frame. The gymnast, who grips one ring with each hand, must control the movement of the rings . A Rings routine is composed of swing, strength and hold parts in approximately equal portions. These parts and combinations are executed in a hang position, to or through a support position, or to or through the handstand position, and execution with straight arms should be the predominant factor. Contemporary gymnastic performances are characterized by transitions between elements of swing and strength, or the reverse. Swinging and crossing the cables of the Rings are not permitted .
For a long time there was no specific apparatus for Vault, and in its place the Pommel Horse was simply set up lengthwise and used for competitions. The Pegases vaulting table, created by Dutch apparatus manufacturers, Janssen & Fritsen, was introduced in 2000 in Antwerpen . The 2001 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships were the first international competition to make use of the "vaulting table". It features a flat, larger, and more cushioned surface almost parallel to the floor, which slopes downward at the end closest to the springboard and appears to be safer than the old apparatus .
Gymnasts perform one vault, except in Qualifications for the Vault Final and the actual Vault Final, where they must perform two vaults from different groups and with a different second flight phase. Each vault begins with a run and a take-off from both feet (with or without a round off) and is executed with a brief support phase on the table with two hands. The vault may contain single or multiple turns around the two axes of the body . Vaulting has been an Olympic event for men since the modern Games began in 1896 .
The Parallel Bars is a gymnastics apparatus invented in the early 19th century by, once again, the German Friedrich Jahn, who, I should remind you, is considered to be the father of gymnastics [11, 12, 13]. The apparatus consists of two parallel bars that are held parallel to, and elevated above, the floor by a metal supporting framework. The bars are composed of wood or other material, with an outer coating of wood . A contemporary, typical Parallel Bars routine consists predominantly of swings and flight elements selected from all available Element Groups and performed with continuous transitions through various hang and support positions in such a way as to reflect the full potential of the apparatus . The Parallel Bars has been part of the Olympic programme for gymnastics since the first modern Games in 1896 .
The Horizontal Bar, also called 'High Bar', is a gymnastics apparatus introduced by Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths in his 1793 book 'Gymnastik für die Jugend', which in turn inspired further use and development by the aforementioned, legendary Friedrich Jahn [14, 15]. A contemporary Horizontal Bar routine must be a dynamic presentation that consists entirely of the fluid connection of swinging, turning and flight elements alternating between elements performed near to and far from the bar in a variety of hand grips, so as to demonstrate the full potential of the apparatus . The Horizontal Bar is often considered one of the most exciting gymnastics events due to the power exhibited by gymnasts during giant swings and spectacular aerial releases and dismounts that often include multiple flips or twists . The Horizontal Bar has been an Olympic event in gymnastics since the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 .
- MAG Code of Points 2013-2016, issued by the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG)
- Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 2006 Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc
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- Rings (Gymnastics). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 20.June.2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rings_(gymnastics)>
- GymMedia. Gymnastics Apparatuses. Retrieved 21.June.2015 <http://www.gymmedia.com/Anaheim03/appa/>
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- "Vaulting". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 20 Jun. 2015 <http://www.britannica.com/sports/vaulting>.
- "Parallel Bars". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 21 Jun. 2015 <http://www.britannica.com/sports/parallel-bars>.
- "Janssen & Fritsen presents: History of the Parallel Bars". Retrieved 21.June.2015. <http://www.gymmedia.com/ghent2001/appa/bars/history_ba.htm>
- Parallel Bars (Gymnastics). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 21.June.2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_bars#cite_note-1>
- "Horizontal Bar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 21 Jun. 2015 <http://www.britannica.com/sports/horizontal-bar>.
- Horizontal Bar (Gymnastics). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 21.June.2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horizontal_bar>
STK SPORT - Introduction To Gymnastics